Major systemic changes to the manufacturing industry were well underway to converge the physical and digital prior to the widespread disruptions of 2020. And the disruptions aren’t finished. Trends arising from the effects of Brexit, new waves of COVID-19 and the rolling impact of all-digital living & working promises to keep shifting the ground under manufacturing in 2021. Even before the pandemic shredded plans and targets, manufacturers struggled to maintain cost-effectiveness while adopting or planning to adopt Industry 4.0 digitalisation initiatives. In 2021, the manufacturing industry will continue to face economic upheaval, evolving consumer behaviour and changes to global trade patterns.
The efficiencies of fusing the physical with the digital in manufacturing — from disruption-ready supply chains to digital upskilling and intelligent automation — are vital for fulfilling sustainability goals. However, many industry thought leaders also believe this convergence is an existential challenge that firms must succeed in. There will be risks to mitigate but, more importantly, opportunities to grasp as the industry reimagines the new possible. Here are five ongoing manufacturing trends that will continue to define the near future, with some thoughts on how the industry can respond.
Higher demand for bespoke products
Mass customisation may not be new, but the demand for personalised products is rising. In saturated product categories, differentiation through features alone is getting harder to achieve. On top of that, 2020 made consumers acutely aware of the things they value most. From fast-moving consumer goods to industrial machinery, customers want products that reflect their individual needs.
This year, manufacturers will have to find ways to satisfy an even more personalisation-hungry market on a mass scale. They’ll need to do this while remaining profitable — despite the artisanal overheads that come with bespoke production. Meanwhile, design and manufacturing teams will need to avoid falling victim to product development systems overloaded with customisation requests, creating bottlenecks that kill innovation. Fortunately, as demand takes shape, there will be an opportunity to look again at both pricing and fulfilment. After all, research shows consumers will pay 20% more on average for bespoke products — and wait longer to receive them.
The rise of smart products
Consumers are rapidly evolving new behaviours, and their expectations are rising faster than manufacturing can follow. Of the 30,000 new products introduced to the market each year, some 72% fail to hit profitability targets. After the shocks of 2020, consumers want to live better lives, so everything they purchase has to add value. But what constitutes value? Manufacturers have to get closer to end-users to know the answer. In 2021, smart manufacturers will not only focus on concepts, such as Big Data and IoT but also get better at interpreting the data they already have. They’ll use it to develop smarter products that offer bundles of extended services and benefits, which provides ongoing insight into how consumer preferences and behaviour are evolving. Instead of products, manufacturers should think of whole ecosystems, attaching apps or software features, or new subscription models that deliver recurring revenue (and data).
Meanwhile, product designers will need to give customer experience their full attention. Rather than focusing on new forms, features and benefits, they’ll need a stream of up-to-date information from customers, suppliers and analytics to understand what the data is telling them and the tools to apply what they learn to design.
The use of data to inform automation
Automation of repetitive tasks is already well established in high-cost countries, particularly in verticals like automotive that feature standard product or series production. The challenge in 2021 will be to apply automation in markets defined by trends, like mass customisation, where many processes and schematics can’t be pre-programmed. For example, automation can be used to address customer preference categories rather than every individual whim, helping manufacturers create personalised products while remaining efficient. To do this, automation systems will need to be fed with data currently sitting in manufacturing’s technology silos: living on individual machines or inside disconnected software solutions.
Applying new levels of automation beyond the factory floor will also uncover value and become a key driver of new efficiencies. In the design phase, for instance, greater adoption of generative design will help automate the resolution of problems, letting engineers and designers focus on value-added tasks. If there’s a caveat, it’s to avoid seeing automation as a cost-saving cure-all. The human beings in manufacturing’s value chain are another kind of data silo, and the information and experience living in their heads are invaluable. Manufacturers will need to balance machine and human work or fall victim to cautionary tales, such as Tesla’s over-automation of production for its Model 3, which led to severe delays.
Increased supply chain resilience
When the pandemic upset supplier relationships this year, there was a knee-jerk assumption that procurement would simply come back onshore. That’s proven to be untrue. Even when local suppliers have the goods manufacturers need and the capacity to take on new orders —restrictions like lockdowns can keep people away from work sites and stop materials from getting through.
Supply chains need to be flexible enough to scale as business levels ebb and flow: 2020 demonstrated just how brittle they’ve become after years of relentless cost optimisation. It’s also revealed how much manufacturers still rely on critical strategic providers that can’t easily be replaced. In 2021, manufacturers will have to adopt measures to strengthen supply chain resilience. Reviewing supplier relationships to understand where critical capabilities might lie will help shield against the impact of disruption.
Firms can invest in greater digital connectivity with strategic suppliers to strengthen collaboration. They can also take steps to spread the risk of operational downtime by finding backup suppliers for the most vital materials, services or components. Investing in digital skill sets that support greater information sharing will take on new importance. Manufacturers might consider key strategic supplier training to help them adapt to new communication and collaboration tools.
The convergence of manufacturing with both construction and design
Are buildings just very large products? The construction industry seems to think so. It’s borrowing heavily from manufacturing: adopting tools, processes and working methods that reduce costs and inefficiencies. That’s led to greater cross-sector collaboration in areas such as data. It’s also impacting how construction projects execute. Industrialised construction has led to more prefabrication of building components for on-site assembly later — a direct nod to manufacturing process.
For manufacturers, greater convergence could lead to stronger supply chains. Construction is also bringing more agility to the sector, creating modular factories that can be restructured and re-engineered quickly to create smaller batches of high-value products. Designers are creating products that have structural aspects, and architects are building structures that function like products. Manufacturers should be looking to recruit skill sets that complement both industries.
Placing data at the centre of the product-development process has also led to the convergence of design and manufacturing, where data in the cloud centralised within software tools creates a common data experience and better collaboration across departments, from the factory floor to the C-suite. This data-led convergence can exponentially accelerate product development by breaking down silos of communication between departments and unlocking the potential for greater automation, which in turn increases productivity by reducing the delays of working manually.
Automation technologies, such as generative design, harness Artificial Intelligence (AI), cloud computing and data to automate design and manufacturing aspects while further blurring the lines between both disciplines. There is also an enormous potential to reduce waste by cutting down on the material used, reducing part counts and moving more of the testing and validation processes from physical to simulated environments. These convergences point toward the future of work when designers are freed from mundane manual tasks and have more time for innovation. Executives will have more bandwidth to focus on business growth. Manufacturing professionals will gain new skills working alongside robotics and automation while staying connected 24/7 to the entire supply chain.
As more construction elements are manufactured in controlled environments and specialised construction robotics aid in tough manual labour, workers will enjoy safer and less physically debilitating conditions. And for all employees involved, the thorough line of a common data experience will make remote work — with the added utility of augmented-, mixed- and virtual-reality tools — more efficient, whether it’s simply desired or required.
2021: Manufacturing’s year of digital
The common thread of digitalisation runs through all of these 2021 trends. This will be the year when manufacturers realise that digital transformation isn’t limited to production applications like robots. It applies to the full business lifecycle: concept, design, engineering, production and customer experience, through to management and operations. With its vast potential to reduce material waste, allow seamless remote collaboration and foment other efficiencies, a digital transformation is a key to the sustainable transformation of industry.
This year, manufacturers will need a digital strategy that can overcome the challenges of globalisation, customisation, resilience and complexity — and take as much guesswork out of product development as possible.